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Stage Period Years Syntactic Dystonic Virtue Maldevelopment
One Infancy 0–1.5 Trust Mistrust Hope Withdrawal
Two Early Childhood 2–3 Autonomy Shame Will Compulsion
Three Play Age 3–5 Initiative Guilt Purpose Inhibition
Four School Age 6–11 Industry Inferiority Competence Inertia (Passivity)
Five Adolescence 12–18 Ego Identity Confusion/Diffusion Fidelity Repudiation
Six Young Adulthood 19–40 Intimacy Isolation Love Distantiation
Seven Adulthood 40–65 Generativity Stagnation/Self-Absorption Care Rejectivity
Eight Old Age 65–death Integrity Despair Wisdom Disdain


  1. secure environment provided by the caregiver, with regular access to affection and food
  2. caregiver promotes self-sufficiency while maintaining a secure environment
  3. caregiver encourages, supports, and guides the child’s own initiatives and interests
  4. reasonable expectations set in school and at home, with praise for their accomplishments
  5. individual weighs out their previous experiences, societal expectations, and their aspirations in establishing values and “finding themselves”
  6. individual forms close friendships or long-term partnership
  7. engagement with the next generation through parenting, coaching, or teaching
  8. contemplation and acknowledgment of personal life accomplishments


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