Rapid Data Response to Novel Psychoactive Substances

Population Measures of Designer Drugs

Learning Objectives

  • How substance use impacts acute and chronic psychiatric patients
  • Understand how triangulated data can expedite treatment of novel drug use
  • Appreciate the dynamic variety of novel psychoactive substances
  • How sewage-based testing can identify novel substances in community
  • Recognize ethical dilemmas arising from sewage-based testing


Bishop, Nicholas, Tammy Jones-Lepp, Miranda Margetts, Jordan Sykes, David Alvarez, and Deborah E. Keil. 2020. “Wastewater-Based Epidemiology Pilot Study to Examine Drug Use in the Western United States.” The Science of the Total Environment 745 (November): 140697. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140697.

Chiappini, Stefania, Alessio Mosca, Andrea Miuli, Maria Chiara Santovito, Laura Orsolini, John Martin Corkery, Amira Guirguis, et al. 2021. “New Psychoactive Substances and Suicidality: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature.” Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) 57 (6): 580. doi:10.3390/medicina57060580.

Friedman, Joseph, Leo Beletsky, and David L. Schriger. 2021. “Overdose-Related Cardiac Arrests Observed by Emergency Medical Services During the US COVID-19 Epidemic.” JAMA Psychiatry 78 (5): 562–64. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.4218.

Goedel, William C., Traci C. Green, Samara Viner-Brown, Josiah D. Rich, and Brandon D. L. Marshall. 2019. “Increased Overdose Mortality During the First Week of the Month: Revisiting the ‘Check Effect’ Through a Spatial Lens.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 197 (April): 49–55. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.12.024.

González-Mariño, Iria, Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Nikiforos A. Alygizakis, Maria Jesús Andrés-Costa, Richard Bade, Anne Bannwarth, Leon P. Barron, et al. 2020. “Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Illicit Drug Use at Large Scale: Evidence from 7 Years of International Wastewater Monitoring.” Addiction (Abingdon, England) 115 (1): 109–20. doi:10.1111/add.14767.

Hall, Wayne, Jeremy Prichard, Paul Kirkbride, Raimondo Bruno, Phong K. Thai, Coral Gartner, Foon Yin Lai, Christoph Ort, and Jochen F. Mueller. 2012. “An Analysis of Ethical Issues in Using Wastewater Analysis to Monitor Illicit Drug Use.” Addiction 107 (10): 1767–73. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03887.x.

Miller, Keith A., Mario J. Hitschfeld, Timothy W. Lineberry, and Brian A. Palmer. 2016 Oct-Dec2016 Oct-Dec. “How Does Active Substance Use at Psychiatric Admission Impact Suicide Risk and Hospital Length-of-Stay?” Journal of Addictive Diseases 35 (4): 291–97. doi:10.1080/10550887.2016.1177808.

Monte, Andrew A., Andrew Hopkinson, Jessica Saben, Shelby K. Shelton, Stephen Thornton, Aaron Schneir, Adam Pomerleau, et al. 2020. “The Psychoactive Surveillance Consortium and Analysis Network (PSCAN): The First Year.” Addiction (Abingdon, England) 115 (2): 270–78. doi:10.1111/add.14808.

O’Neil, Cathy. 2016. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. Crown.

Palamar, Joseph J., Patricia Acosta, Scott Sherman, Danielle C. Ompad, and Charles M. Cleland. 2016. “Self-Reported Use of Novel Psychoactive Substances Among Attendees of Electronic Dance Music Venues.” The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 42 (6): 624–32. doi:10.1080/00952990.2016.1181179.

Pettorruso, Mauro, Giacomo d’Andrea, Giovanni Martinotti, Fabrizio Cocciolillo, Andrea Miuli, Ilenia Di Muzio, Rebecca Collevecchio, et al. 2020. “Hopelessness, Dissociative Symptoms, and Suicide Risk in Major Depressive Disorder: Clinical and Biological Correlates.” Brain Sciences 10 (8): E519. doi:10.3390/brainsci10080519.

Phan, Stephanie V. 2016. “Medication Adherence in Patients with Schizophrenia.” International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 51 (2): 211–19. doi:10.1177/0091217416636601.

Sulej-Suchomska, Anna Maria, Agnieszka Klupczynska, Paweł Dereziński, Jan Matysiak, Piotr Przybyłowski, and Zenon J. Kokot. 2020. “Urban Wastewater Analysis as an Effective Tool for Monitoring Illegal Drugs, Including New Psychoactive Substances, in the Eastern European Region.” Scientific Reports 10 (1): 4885. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-61628-5.

Watanabe, Kayo, C. M. Batikian, Dianne Pelley, B. Carlson, J. Pitt, and R. Gersberg. 2020. “Occurrence of Stimulant Drugs of Abuse in a San Diego, CA, Stream and Their Consumption Rates in the Neighboring Community.” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. doi:10.1007/s11270-020-04565-3.

Wood, D. M., and P. I. Dargan. 2012. “Understanding How Data Triangulation Identifies Acute Toxicity of Novel Psychoactive Drugs.” Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 8 (3): 300–303. doi:10.1007/s13181-012-0241-3.

Wood, David M., Susannah Davies, Shaun L. Greene, Jenny Button, David W. Holt, John Ramsey, and Paul I. Dargan. 2010. “Case Series of Individuals with Analytically Confirmed Acute Mephedrone Toxicity.” Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.) 48 (9): 924–27. doi:10.3109/15563650.2010.531021.